Within the framework of this project a nationwide estimation of the background nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure for the population in Germany was performed with a subsequent quantification of the related burden of disease for mortality and morbidity. In a first step, NO2 exposure maps which display the level of background exposure for the years 2007 to 2014 were analyzed based on modelled NO2 data of the German Environment Agency and measured NO2 data of the federal government and the federal states. Hereafter, the distribution of the population into NO2-concentration classes for Germany was established. The calculated averaged population weighted NO2 concentrations for the considered concentration classes provided the basis for the calculation of the burden of disease of all NO2 specific health outcomes. Analyses regarding the temporal development of the exposure and of the health effects as well as of the uncertainties of the results were conducted. The relevant health outcomes were identified in a systematic literature review. Considered outcomes were natural and cause-specific mortality (short-term and long-term effects), cause-specific hospital admission, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), premature birth and low birth weight. To assess the evidence of the association between NO2 exposure and the health endpoints, a set of criteria was developed within the project. Based on this evaluation, strong evidence with regard to long-term effects was found for cardiovascular mortality. Regarding short-term effects, the endpoints total natural mortality and respiratory mortality showed strong evidence. The emerging endpoint diabetes was rated with moderate evidence. Using a counterfactual value of 10 µg/m³ NO2, based on NO2 annual mean concentrations 5,966 (95 %-confidence interval: 2,031 to 9,893) premature deaths and 49,726 (16,929 to 82,456) Years of Live Lost (YLLs) due to cardiovascular mortality attributable to NO2 long-term exposure were estimated for the year 2014. Between 2007 and 2014 an overall slightly decreasing trend was seen regarding attributable premature deaths. It is important to point out that the estimates of the burden of disease in this project are solely based on background concentrations for NO2 and thus do not account for the higher concentrations which are found particularly in urban areas close to traffic.